Aglais urticae
Tervakoski, Finland 2004-09-04


This is a little hobby project of European butterflies. It started with the Finnish species and expanded first to Scandinavia
and Baltic countries and then to whole Europe and Macaronesia. I intend to prevent further expansions.

This is the second version of these pages. The main differences to the first version is the addition of European distribution
maps and the downscaling of the thumbnails from the width of 320 to 240 in order to make space for the maps.

If you think that the pages look strange, the first thing to check is your browser! The pages are optimized for Firefox
(or any other Mozilla derivative). For the IE users (and possibly Edge too): The blue names in the left column are links and
the black ones are not. In Firefox hovering over links works, but in IE it does not, if the link is a script. Which brings me to
another point: Scripts must be enabled for anything to happen. The maps link to themselves in full size. The groups have
been divided into separate pages so you can not get all the images by simply scrolling - you have to click the Genus.
Despite of this, some of the pages are still rather large - Sorry!


The purpose of this project is simply to collect pictures of butterflies in order to help people identify what they see. For that
purpose pictures of collected specimen (or drawings) are a must. The pictures of the same species in the wild came later,
but theyare fun to take and hopefully a joy to look at.

The coverages of set specimen is best for species with Northern distribution. I'll try to expand that as much as I can,
but the progress is quite slow. Due to the missing species, the further away from Finland you are, the more likely you are
to seek a species not shown here. In most cases it should be possible to find at least a larger group where your specimen
belongs to. That is also the reason for showing all the species and the distribution maps. With them it is simple to narrow
down the possibilities. In many cases it is still likely that the exact identity will remain unknown due to lack of images
and descriptions.

In addition to missing species, there is also regional variation, which I can not show. And some groups are so difficult
that absolutely certain identification requires genital or DNA study. Add to that the fact that in some cases there is really
no consensus on just how many species there are within a genus. As this is just a hobby to me, I will not even try to
mess with that.

Scientific note

Currently the systematics are mostly based on Bestimmungshilfe on with some minor modifications. Those are
mine and have NO scientific grounds, so please don't use these pages as a source of systematics.

The distribution is mainly from Fauna Europaea Web Service (2004) Fauna Europaea version 1.1, with some updates from
the current incarnation of FaunaEur and elsewhere. In cases where I have added subspecies not present in FaunaEur, the
distribution maps for the subspecies may well have errrors. The total species distribution in those cases should be relatively

Speaking of the distribution, there are basically four possibilities: Either the species has been recorded in a certain
location or it has not. The additional two options are uncertain record, which is in lighter blue, and a lack of information
in either way. This last is darker gray. In general one country is represented as one region. However, some larger
islands have been separated from mainland and the Greek Islands form a single entity apart from the mainland.
The three circles on the left stand for Azores, Canary Islands and Madeira. Rare migrants are treated the same
as common species - one record is enough to mark presence.

Picture credits

Most of the pictures are mine. I certainly don't mind adding other peoples pictures here - especially if they show a species
I'm not likely to encounter. So far the following persons have been kind enough to let me show some of their pictures:
- Sami Haapala
- Marian Harustak
- Bernard Fransen
- Murat (on PhotoSig)
- Tero Wester
- Martin Amm (on PhotoSig)
- Olli Vesikko
- Pekka Alestalo
- Pekka Malinen
- Roger Gibbons
- Daniel Suárez
My sincere thanks to each!

16.6.2008 & 7.12.2019 - JKT

The pictures on these pages are copyrighted by me except for those otherwise marked, which are copyrighted
by the indicated person. My pictures can be used for non-commercial purposes, but if you do, please let me
know. Commercial use of my pictures and ANY use of pictures not copyrighted by me is forbidden to the extent
legally possible.