Aglais urticae
Tervakoski, Finland 2004-09-04


This is a little hobby project of European butterflies. It started with the Finnish species and expanded
first to Scandinavia and Baltic countries and now to whole Europe. I intend to make sure it won't expand
any further. :)

This is the second version of these pages. The main differences to the first version is the addition of
European distribution maps and the downscaling of the thumbnails from the width of 320 to 240 in order to
make space for the maps.

If you think that the pages look strange, the first thing to check is your browser! The pages are optimized
for Firefox (or any other Mozilla derivative) and they look stupid in IE. That is just too bad! About other
browsers I have no idea. For the IE users: The blue names in the left column are links and the black ones are
not. In Firefox they links change color when you hower over them, but for some reason that does not work in IE,
if the link is a script. Which brings me to another point: Scripts must be enabled for anything to happen.
The maps link to themselves in full size. The groups have been divided into separate pages so you can not
get all the images by simply scrolling - you have to click the Genus. Despite of this, some of the pages are
still rather large - Sorry!


The purpose of this project is simply to collect pictures of butterflies in order to help people identify
what they see. For that purpose pictures of collected specimen (or drawings) are a must. The pictures of the
same species in the wild came later, but they are fun to take and hopefully a joy to look at.

Currently there are pictures of set specimen for most species found in Europe for the groups Papilionidae,
Pieridae and Nymphalidae (excluding old Satyridae). The other groups are mostly limited to Finnish species, but
I'm working on that... The pictures of live specimen are mostly limited to Finnish species, but I do try to expand
the coverage wherever I go. Unfortunately there is never enough time.

Due to the missing species, the further away from Finland you are, the more likely you are to seek a species
not shown here. In most cases it should be possible to find at least a larger group where your specimen belongs to.
That is also the reason for showing all the species and the distribution maps. With them it is simple to narrow
down the possibilities. In many cases it is still likely that the exact identity will remain unknown due to lack of
images and descriptions.

In addition to missing species, there is also regional variation, which I can not show. And some groups are
so difficult that absolutely certain identification requires genital or DNA study. Add to that the fact that in
some cases there is really no consensus whether there are one or more species within a genus. As this is just a
hobby to me, I will not even try to mess with that.

Scientific note

Currently the systematics are based on Fauna Europaea Web Service (2004) Fauna Europaea version 1.1
with some ordering from Markku Savela's pages and elsewhere. Some is also mine and that has NO scientific grounds,
so please don't use these pages as a source of systematics.

The species list and distribution is also mainly from FaunaEur, with minor modifications and small corrections
in distribution. I have also added some subspecie, which have been left out of FaunaEur. Hesperia comma catena,
Pieris napi adalwinda, Boloria thore borealis and Pararge aegeria tircis come first to mind. In these cases, the
distribution maps are most likely inaccurate. However, the combined distribution of the specie should be correct.

Speaking of the distribution, there are basically four possibilities: Either the species has been recorded in
a certain location or it has not. The additional two options are uncertain record, which is in lighter blue, and a
lack of information in either way. This last is darker gray. In general one country is represented as one region.
However, some larger islands have been separated from mainland and the Greek Islands form a single entity apart
from the mainland. The three circles on the left stand for Azores, Canary Islands and Madeira.

Picture credits

Currently the pictures are mostly taken by myself. I certainly don't mind adding other peoples pictures here
- especially if they show a species I'm not likely to encounter. So far the following persons have been kind
enough to let me show some of their pictures:
- Sami Haapala
- Marian Harustak
- Bernard Fransen
- Murat
- Tero Wester
- Martin Amm
- Olli Vesikko
- Pekka Alestalo
- Pekka Malinen
- Roger Gibbons
My sincere thanks to each!

16.6.2008 - JKT

The pictures on these pages are copyrighted by me except for those otherwise marked, which are
copyrighted by the indicated person. My pictures can be used for non-commercial purposes, but if you do, let me know.
Commercial use of my pictures and ANY use of pictures not copyrighted by me is forbidden to the extent
legally possible.